PSLV is known as Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle , is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
The PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately.
First stage is one of the largest solid-fuel rocket boosters in the world and carries 138 tonnes of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) bound propellant with a diameter of 2.8 m.
The motor case is made of maraging steel. The booster develops a maximum thrust of about 4,430 kN. Six strap-on motors, four of which are ignited on the ground, augment the first stage thrust.
Each of these solid propellant strap-on motors carries nine tonnes of HTPB propellant and produces 677 kN thrust.
Second Stage employs the Vikas engine and carries 41.5 tonnes (40 tonnes till C-5 mission) of liquid propellant .
- Unsymmetrical Di-Methyl Hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and
- Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer.
Third stage uses 7 tonnes of HTPB-based Solid Propellant and produces a maximum thrust of 324 kN. It has a Kevlar-polyamide fiber case and a submerged nozzle equipped with a flex-bearing-seal gimbaled nozzle thrust.
For roll control it uses the RCS (Reaction Control System) of fourth stage.
Indian Space Research Organisation is also developing new technologies for missions beyond earth orbit .
Also check : ISRO Reusable Space Shuttle Mission [ Details ]
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